The Slippery Slope of Socialism

Thomas Paine: American Philosopher, & Revolutionary

From 1776 through the formation of The Constitution I helped create America. Now I have returned to help save America. American Patriots must join together, speak out in free and open discussion to fight the “woke” anti-American mob, and further the cause of FREEDOM.

The Democrat party, affectionately revered by older generations, has been hijacked by radical left-wing extremist disciples of Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924), gleefully skiing down the slippery slope of socialism with their horde of lemmings close behind. 

Marx, the German philosopher, held that in the capitalist system of production, there was class conflict between the ruling class, the bourgeoisie, who controlled the means of production, and the working class, the proletariat, who sold their labor for wages.

He believed the tensions between the classes would lead to self-destruction and the society would naturally evolve into socialism.  He even argued that the proletariat should organize revolutions to bring about socioeconomic change. 

SIDEBAR:  I’ll be damned.  Doesn’t that sound exactly like today’s DNC ?

Organized political activists pushing Obama’s agenda to “fundamentally transform” America into a socialist nation.  You don’t honestly think Beijing Joe Biden has the mental capacity to formulate such a master plan, do you ?  He can barely read a sentence off the teleprompter without stumbling.  His orders are coming from a puppet-master, his former boss.  I say that with confidence because there are way too many pieces of connective evidence to simply be debunked as coincidental, or even non-existent.  From the assault on so many constitutional amendments, to overwhelming so many systems and institutions with extreme reform demands, to blatantly lying to the American people and not even caring about backlash, to attacks on American values and cultural norms.  All of that is Obama’s modus operandi.  Oh, and to resume all that, it was imperative that the DNC had to regain power and keep it going by “winning” elections – what a coincidence.  They didn’t even need to send him out on the campaign trail.

Everything you see happening today is being orchestrated by Barack Hussein Obama.  I say it all the time, because it just HAS to be true.

Every thread of the current “woke” movement is part of Obama’s web.  It’s ALL connected.

Most people who herald Obama as some kind of Messiah, have no idea what they are hoping for, and how quickly their “utopian” socialist state could morph into full-blown communism.

Many ”political scientists” attribute the roots of Marxism in America to the Frankfurt School, which was founded in Germany during the Weimar Republic (1918-1933), as a school of social theory and critical philosophy. According to Wikipedia, the Frankfurt School was critical of both capitalism and Marxism-Leninism, yet they apparently adopted much of Marxist theory in terms of his “idealist philosophy” that could be enacted by social change.

Lenin, the Russian revolutionary who led the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) and rose to became the founding head of Soviet Russia (1917-1922), then the Soviet Union (1922-1924), which became a one-party socialist state governed by the Communist Party.

In 1905 Lenin encouraged the Bolsheviks in armed violent insurrection and advocated continual violent confrontation against the government of Tsar Nicholas II. 

From Wikipedia:  “In September 1917, Lenin published Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism, which argued that imperialism was a product of monopoly capitalism, as capitalists sought to increase their profits by extending into new territories where wages were lower and raw materials cheaper. He believed that competition and conflict would increase and that war between the imperialist powers would continue until they were overthrown by proletariat revolution and socialism established.”

Less than two months later, Russia was under communist rule.  On November 7, 1917, with Vladimir Lenin leading the way, the Bolsheviks seized power through the “October Revolution” and became the worlds’ first communist government.  The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party didn’t waste any time morphing into the All-Russian Communist Party, renamed as such in 1918.

What is the actual difference between socialism and communism ?  Let’s examine a few definitions.

The Major Forms of Government 

According to Oxford Languages, socialism;

  1. socialism is a political and economic theory of social organization which advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.  And,
  2. in Marxist theory, a transitional social state between the overthrow of capitalism and the realization of communism.

Whereas Merriam Webster defines socialism as,

  1. socialism is any of various economic and political theories advocating collective or governmental ownership and administration of the means of production and distribution of goods.  And,
  2. a: a system of society or group living in which there is no private property

b. a system or condition of society in which the means of production are owned and controlled by the state.  And,

3. a stage of society in Marxist theory transitional between capitalism and communism and distinguished by unequal distribution of goods and pay according to work done.

SIDEBAR:  We can easily see that socialism is a system whereby the government is empowered to control nearly every aspect of societal life, from how goods are produced, to what services are available, to what the people are permitted to acquire.

In contrast, Oxford Languages defines communism as:

A political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.

Whereas Merriam Webster defines communism as;

  1. a: a system in which goods are owned in common and are available to all as needed

b: a theory advocating elimination of private property

2. capitalized                                                                                                  

a: a doctrine based on revolutionary Marxian socialism and Marxism-Leninism that was the official ideology of the Soviet Union

b: a totalitarian system of government in which a single authoritarian party controls state-owned means of production

c: a final stage of society in Marxist theory in which the state has withered away and economic goods are distributed equitably

d: communist systems collectively

SIDEBAR:  In Marxist theory, communism is the stage that follows socialism, and the socialist state is temporary, as the middle class is absorbed by the bourgeoisie, and the proletariat, effectively establishing the “haves” and the “have nots”.  The bureaucracy enjoys the finer things in life, while the peons survive on the scraps of “equity”.  This is where I’ll jab the “woke” morons who incessantly demand “equity”; you don’t even know what you’re talking about.

For the record, ‘democracy’, according to Oxford Languages, is,

a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives.

And as defined by Merriam Webster, democracy is:

  1.  a: government by the people especially:rule of the majority

  b: a government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free elections

In a direct democracy, the people rule by simple majority, and any representative body must enact the policies desired by that majority.

The key to any indirect democracy is free and fair elections whereby the people choose their representatives.  Theoretically, those elected officials are obligated to represent the majority of their constituencies.

SIDEBAR:  It seems like every 5 minutes we hear Democrats shouting “to save our democracy”, as if they are the ones striving to preserve our system of government.  As George Costanza once said, “It’s not a lie if you believe it.”  Maybe someone should remind them that the United States was formed as a constitutional republic.  It should be taught in schools, in lieu of gender studies and critical race theory.  Even John Dewey (see FOOTNOTE 4) advocated for students to learn how to develop practical solutions to real-world problems in preparation for adulthood.

Democratic socialism, as described by Oxford Reference,

In general, a label for any person or group who advocates the pursuit of socialism by democratic means.  Used especially by parliamentary socialists who put parliamentarianism ahead of socialism, and therefore oppose revolutionary action against democratically elected governments.  Less ambiguous than social democracy, which has had, historically, the opposite meanings of (1) factions of Marxism, and (2) groupings on the right of socialist parties.

Merriam Webster calls it “social democracy”, and defines it as,

  1. : a political movement advocating a gradual and peaceful transition from capitalism to socialism by democratic means
  2. : a democratic welfare state that incorporates both capitalist and socialist practices

SIDEBAR:  Where does the Democrat party fit in this “arena” of political ideologies ?

Answer: firmly in democratic socialism, but getting closer to actual socialism.  The means of production are gradually shifting from the private sector to state-control.  Right now we are seeing the shift in energy and agriculture.  Obama has already commandeered the health insurance industry.

Senator Bernie Sanders(I-VT) claims to be a “democratic socialist” and perhaps he is the poster boy of that movement.  Of course he also claims to be politically “Independent”, when in fact, he votes in total loyalty to the Democrat party.  In other words, he’ll go along with anything they pass.

A constitutional republic, as defined by, refers to a form of government, where the head of state and other officials are representatives of the people and which governs in accordance with existing constitutional law.  It is a government of laws not of men.  Since the governing body is elected and their decisions are subject to judicial review the state is named as republican.

It is an indirect democracy whereby the people have no direct power to govern, but elect eligible candidates to represent them temporarily [1], and both the citizens and the governing officials are bound to adhere to the supreme law of the land, the Constitution.  Whether or not those elected officials truly represent the majority of their constituencies is often a subject of debate.

When they fail to uphold their oaths to “preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States”, it becomes the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.”  —  Declaration of Independence

To quote Wikipedia; “In political philosophy, the right of revolution (or right of rebellion) is the right or duty of a people to “alter or abolish” a government that acts against their common interests or threatens the safety of the people without cause. Stated throughout history in one form or another, the belief in this right has been used to justify various revolutions, including the American Revolution, French Revolution,, the Russian Revolution, and the Iranian Revolution.”  [2]

The present state of the union may have entered the realm of tyranny, in that the administration and the Democrat-controlled Congress is ignoring the Constitution on many fronts.  Although the abovementioned clause in the Declaration is clear, it would be a very drastic action for anyone to attempt to overthrow the government, which is itself a federal crime described by Title 18 U.S. Code § 2385 [3], and I’m not advocating it, or recommending anyone try to overwhelm the U.S. military.

Short of that, we are left to wait for the next opportunity to vote out the representatives who have violated their oaths and are actively attacking the Constitution.  That opportunity is now just 55 days away (as of the date of publication) as the mid-term elections loom.  However, the presidential administration, which holds enormous power, will remain until at least January 20, 2025, and the President seems to be on a roll in shoving Obama’s anti-American agenda down our collective throats with alarming acceleration and extreme prejudice.  Republicans, or as Obiden recently called them, “Ultra MAGA Republicans”, offend liberals by hurting their feelings.  Democrats, and their Praetorian Guard in the media, offend Republicans by hammering them with an iron fist.  They have corrupted the entire government and break laws with impunity while doing it.  THAT must change.  If they are allowed to remain in power through continued fraudulent elections, America is OVER !

What Happened to the Democrat Party ?

The DNC is no longer the party of FDR and JFK.  It is now controlled by former President Barack Obama and it is his agenda driving the country towards socialism at an alarming pace.  The entire power structure of the DNC has fallen into place, in total fealty to their “Messiah” and his master plan.  They march in lock-step and you never hear the voice of dissent coming from their ranks.  As extreme as the Green New Deal is, it would never be driving the entire domestic policy if Obama didn’t want it to accelerate the destruction of the American economy.  The plan is to take down “the great Satan” in order to insert his system of government.

Admittedly, I have not yet figured out how he intends to complete his “fundamental transformation” from a socialist state to one under Islamic rule, but the process is clearly underway.  In order to effect revolution the populace must first be controlled.  Once the majority is firmly in control, then the entire country can be manipulated, particularly when the regime’s “state” police is squashing all resistance. 

Perhaps he is just laying the groundwork for the eventual takeover by future Islamic leaders, knowing time is on his side.  It is one stratagem of jihad to play the “long game”, eroding existing norms by chipping away at the culture little-by-little.  That is why you see the recent attacks and focus on our public education system.  They have implemented radical theories in our elementary schools to brainwash our future leaders.  Muslims begin the indoctrination of their youth at a very early age – hmmmm ?

Yes, it is true that “progressives” began implementing Marxist ideology in our public education system over 100 years ago [4], but the process was too slow for Obama’s liking.  He wanted to accelerate the indoctrination campaign and look at how fast it is moving now. 

Metaphorically, this is a raging wildfire that is threatening to burn the entire country to the ground.

In Case You Missed It, Democrat Socialist Policies In Effect Include:

“Climate Change” activists relentlessly demand conformity to an abstract idea that the planet will become a wasteland within a few years if the United States doesn’t set the gold standard on energy consumption, which the rest of the world is exempted from – Biden (a.k,a. Obama, and his army of socialist activists) cancelled the Keystone XL pipeline and placed a moratorium on drilling leases on federal land on his first day in office.  That one act alone caused out-of-control inflation that is crushing the middle class.  Despite the White House attempt to redefine “recession”, we are in one right now.  Biden inherited an independent energy producer and flew to Saudi Arabia to beg for their oil, which is not produced as cleanly, or safely, as American oil.  Yet somehow, energy produced on the other side of the same planet doesn’t have as much impact on global warming.  Watch for the government to suggest they should be in control of the means of producing “clean” energy wind and solar farms.

The incessant condemnation of corporations, painting their very existence as greedy capitalists – don’t pay any attention to the fact that corporations employ millions of citizens, giving them the ability to purchase goods and services that help other citizens utilize the same dollars in an endless chain, classic “trickle-down” economics, which they claim doesn’t work.  Nonsense !  How does “trickle down” economics not work ?  Never mind that corporations increase wealth for many Americans.  And ignore the hypocrisy that even the most vocal socialists use corporations in their daily lives in a multitude of ways.

ObamaCare, cleverly named the “Affordable Care Act”, to make it sound so appealing, is nothing more than government control of health care and willing disclosure of your personal information – state control of health care is state control of the people.  Notice the misleading name of the Bill, and the same logic applied to Obiden’s naming of the “Inflation Reduction Act”.  The actual effect of the legislation is the opposite of the implied name, but they think you’re too stupid to figure it out, and don’t care if you do.

Control the education of children and condition them from their earliest ages as an indoctrination to socialism – did you notice the uproar from school boards in Virginia when parents attended meetings complaining about the curriculum their children were subjected to ?  They actually had those parents labelled as domestic terrorists, implying they had no right to inquire, or question, the authorities on what their children were being taught in school.

Ultimately, “gun control” is confiscation of private property.  Now they want to ban semi-automatic “assault weapons” (whatever category they think appropriate, subject to whimsical revisions).  That’s just the first step.  The gun grabbers will never stop their unstated goal of disarming the entire country.  The best way to control the people is to make sure they can’t fight back.  The Second Amendment is secured as part of the supreme law of the land and can only be repealed by constitutional amendment, or reversal by the Supreme Court, which recently upheld and strengthened it (see NYSRPA v. Bruen, 2022).  I posted a three-part series on the Second Amendment that you can see HERE.

Islamic Jihad: It’s more than You Think

I studied Islam for 15 years, not to convert, but to understand it as best I could.  I’m quite sure I could have earned a Masters degree in Middle East Studies had I chosen to pursue it.  One of the most important discoveries I made was in 2015 when I saw an article posted by the Islamic Supreme Council that was intended to debunk the way “non-believers” perceived jihad, but in their zealousness to inform the reader what jihad was not, they revealed what jihad was.  By that I mean they told us that jihad was not simply an army of AK-47 wielding terrorists, but also had other “forms” of support. [5]  (at this point, I recommend reading the entire footnote, before coming back to the main article)

If you look at many things Obama said and did, you might realize he has been waging jihad against America from the very beginning, in the form known as “by the tongue”. 

I would also highly recommend a thoroughly revealing publication that explores the background of Muhammad’s twisted “religion”.  [6]

America: Where Are We Now ?  

I’ve reviewed the transcript of Obiden’s 1st of September prime-time speech to the nation, his so-called “Continued Battle for the Soul of the Nation”.  After some introductory remarks on the importance of the city of Philadelphia in the founding of America, his attacks on his political opposition began with the phrase, “But as I stand here tonight, equality and democracy are under assault.”  And shortly thereafter said, “Donald Trump and the MAGA Republicans represent an extremism that threatens the very foundations of our republic.”  Then, “And here, in my view, is what is true: MAGA Republicans do not respect the Constitution.  They do not believe in the rule of law.  They do not recognize the will of the people.”  Followed by, “They promote authoritarian leaders, and they fan the flames of political violence that are a threat to our personal rights, to the pursuit of justice, to the rule of law, to the very soul of this country”, and citing a federal judge who called MAGA Republicans “a clear and present danger to our democracy.”

Actually, it’s the DNC that is the threat to our constitutional republic, and they are actively destroying it every day.

Projectionism on steroids:  He has perfectly described the Democrat party and his own administration.  Extreme activists who burned and looted cities across the country, assaulted police, firebombed federal buildings, actively supported by Democrat leaders, and then stole a presidential election to secure their power, and he wants you to think Republicans are threatening America.  That’s “rich.” 

Don’t be fooled by the charlatan master of deception, Barack Obama.  We the People are in a battle all right.  But it’s not against MAGA Republicans.  It’s a no-holds-barred conflict against the DNC and their socialist agenda.  The mainstream media (MSM) carries their water and dutifully attacks all political dissent through misrepresentation and outright censorship.  Right now, they are winning by holding across-the-board power, but on November 8th, Judgment Day will be upon them, and they have no legitimate accomplishments to run on.  Their candidates refuse to debate because they have no arguments.  Anyone who still supports the Democrat party at this point, after what they have done in the past 20 months, is a complete moron, PERIOD !  I try not to be rude directly, but that is the beauty of using a pen name.  I can say ANYTHING, and I DO.  In polite company, if the subject of political choice comes up, simply ask, “is your family better off now than it was 2 years ago?”  Then watch closely, as they dodge the question or change the subject.

Take NOTHING for granted and don’t trust ANY polls.  No matter how big a lead any Republican may appear to have, get out there and vote.  It’s not a vote FOR any particular candidate, and many of them are not ideal in every respect.  That doesn’t matter.  It’s a vote AGAINST every Democrat.  It’s not good enough to not vote for the Democrat.  Patriots must vote FOR every Democrat opponent.  America depends on you.



[1]  The Constitution requires term limits.  The entire body of the House of Representatives is up for re-election every two years.  Senators serve six-year terms and 1/3 of the chamber is up for re-election every two years on a rotating basis.  Presidential administrations have been limited to two four-year terms since 1951 by the 22nd Amendment.


(seems to have been partially taken straight from the Declaration of Independence)

[3]  Title 18 U.S. Code § 2385 – Advocating Overthrow of Government

Whoever knowingly or willfully advocates, abets, advises, or teaches the duty, necessity, desirability, or propriety of overthrowing or destroying the government of the United States or the government of any State, Territory, District or Possession thereof, or the government of any political subdivision therein, by force or violence, or by the assassination of any officer of any such government; or

Whoever, with intent to cause the overthrow or destruction of any such government, prints, publishes, edits, issues, circulates, sells, distributes, or publicly displays any written or printed matter advocating, advising, or teaching the duty, necessity, desirability, or propriety of overthrowing or destroying any government in the United States by force or violence, or attempts to do so; or

Whoever organizes or helps or attempts to organize any society, group, or assembly of persons who teach, advocate, or encourage the overthrow or destruction of any such government by force or violence; or becomes or is a member of, or affiliates with, any such society, group, or assembly of persons, knowing the purposes thereof—

Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than twenty years, or both, and shall be ineligible for employment by the United States or any department or agency thereof, for the five years next following his conviction.

If two or more persons conspire to commit any offense named in this section, each shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than twenty years, or both, and shall be ineligible for employment by the United States or any department or agency thereof, for the five years next following his conviction.

As used in this section, the terms “organizes” and “organize”, with respect to any society, group, or assembly of persons, include the recruiting of new members, the forming of new units, and the regrouping or expansion of existing clubs, classes, and other units of such society, group, or assembly of persons.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 808; July 24, 1956, ch. 678, § 2, 70 Stat. 623Pub. L. 87–486, June 19, 1962, 76 Stat. 103Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, § 330016(1)(N), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2148.),years%20next%20following%20his%20conviction.

[4] The progressive movement in America began in the era from 1890-1920, and you could spend countless hours studying the roots of progressivism.  The first “Progressive” School in America was the Lincoln School, founded in 1917 at Columbia Teacher’s College of New York as a political philosophy and reform movement (see Progressivism in the United States, Wikipedia).

Progressivism was a broad term used to describe a movement that was a response to the modernization of American society.  The intentions were originally somewhat noble in an effort to combat corruption and industrial pollution.  The early progressives had no idea what their followers would do to weaponize it against their political opposition.

John Dewey (1859-1952), often regarded as the father of progressivism in education, was a pragmatic philosopher who advocated a transition from classical education to learning that emphasized practical applications to solve problems and critical thinking that prepared students for future experiences.  In general, that seems like a pretty good idea, and it may have been a respected approach that was refined over many decades.  However, like many institutions controlled by the liberal left, “progressive” education has been hi-jacked in recent years by radical activists whose agenda is to indoctrinate our youth to accept a one-party power regime focused on “fundamentally transforming” America into a communist nation.

Remember when Obama initiated Common Core ?  Have you seen a common core math problem ?  It’s literally insane.  But it’s not about the process.  It’s about obedience and conformity.  The “progressive” movement simply must control the populace, by any and all means necessary.  Now we hear about parents complaining of Critical Race Theory (CRT) [4a] at school board meetings, and the FBI labelling those parents as domestic terrorists.  WHAT ?  Elected school board members telling parents they don’t need to know what their children are learning.  The teacher’s unions and the left-wing media completely deny the existence of CRT, and expect you to believe them.  You know, kind of like they do with voter fraud, and the border crisis.  The tired mantra of “there’s nothing to see here, move along”.  “Shut up and obey”.  Ironically, they have radicalized “progressive” education so much, they completely got away from Dewey’s emphasis on critical thinking.  They can’t tolerate critical analysis.  They demand silent obedience.

Have you ever noticed how self-proclaimed progressives act like they possess intellectual superiority over their social circles ?  This sense of elitism that must result from taking a few low-level college courses in sociology seems to elevate their self esteem above the level of their actual intelligence.  It would be amusing if it wasn’t obnoxious.

[4a]  Wikipedia defines Critical race theory (CRT) as,

a cross-disciplinary examination, by social and civil-rights scholars and activists, to explore how laws. social and political movements, and media shapes, and is shaped by, social conceptions of race and ethnicity. Goals include challenging all mainstream and “alternative” views of racism and racial justice, including conservative, liberal and progressive. The word critical in the name is an academic reference to critical thinking, critical theory, and scholarly criticism, rather than criticizing or blaming people.

In other words, everything about our society has been systemically developed through the lens of race and Americans should be ashamed of our country’s history, so it must all be torn down to effect “equity”.

[5]  Islamic Supreme Council ; Jihad: What it is Not (a reasonable facsimile of the original title) ;

The following is a summation from the original article, viewed January 2015:

   Jihad basically means to struggle or strive. There are 5 major forms of Jihad; by the heart, by the tongue, by the pen, by the hand, and by the sword.

By the heart deals with one’s inner struggle between good and evil.  (the media, in general, doesn’t want you to know these are actual jihadis, but if it happens to be discovered, they want you to think jihad is simply a spiritual “struggle” to gain acceptance, and violence is not legitimate jihad).  The Islamic Supreme Council would like you to stop right there, but there is more they tried to conceal later.

By the tongue is defending Islam and spreading Islam by scholarly lectures, speeches and debates. (Imam Choudary comes to mind)                                                    

By the pen involves scholarly research in aiding the spread and defense of Islam. (Example: this very article by the Islamic Supreme Council)

By the hand is action rather than words. (direct support of fighters)

By the sword includes usage of arsenals and engaging in combat. This could be anything from a bunch of freedom fighters to an organized campaign of a large army and is allowed under two conditions.

1. for self defense – when someone attacks you or your nation/state

2. fighting against evil or unjust (this is the form justifying terrorism as we know it because Muhammad proclaimed that ALL Jews and Christians were “unjust”).  They believe they can bring a war to your shores because you are “unjust” in their minds, but see no evil in themselves for taking armed conflict into peaceful societies.  That sounds a LOT like the current strategy being employed by the DNC, i.e., “projectionism”.  They seem to be (wrongly) accusing their political opponents of behavior they themselves are thoroughly engaged in. 

By the way, if you visit the site cited below, you will NOT find what I copied from it in January 2015.  A few months later, I re-visited the site and discovered the administrators had edited the article to obscure the clearly defined “forms” of jihad, as I summarized above.  They broke up the 5-form list and added seemingly unobjectionable language designed to comfort the reader into a more acceptable frame of mind.  Someone had decided the January version was too revealing.  Today that site resembles nothing like it did 7 years ago and their “Archives” menu dates from August 1996 to April 2011. 

From the Archives of January 2010, they have an article titled Jihad: A Misunderstood Concept from Islam that loosely resembles the original article.

On page 3 it says, “<jaahidu>, is used to mean struggle by means of the tongue—preaching and exhortation— . . . “, an excerpt that reveals the form known as “by the tongue”.  On page 10 they have two chapters titled, “What Jihad Is” and “What Jihad Is Not”, which are likely the highly edited sections of the original.

[6]  Winn, Craig ;Prophet of Doom: Islam’s Terrorist Dogma in Muhammad’s Own Words ; Cricketsong Books ; 2004 ; ISBN 0 – 9714481- 2- 4